A eukaryotic cell, or eukaryote, is a cell that possesses a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles.
Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell
The nucleus is not found in prokaryotic organisms and is hence an identifying feature of eukaryotic cells. The nucleus, along with the mitochondria, contains all of the DNA in the cell.
The cell membrane in the eukaryotic cell is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and allows for the transport of substances in and out of the cell.
Mitochondria are organelles with a phospholipid bilayer of their own and are often considered the “powerhouse” of the eukaryotic cell. The mitochondria is where the Krebs Cycle takes place.
The golgi modifies and packages proteins for use inside and outside of the cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum, often referred to as the “ER”, is a collection of membranous walls that separates the cytosol from the cisternal space. The smooth ER lack ribosomes. On the other hand, the rough ER
Lysosomes are organelles that contain acidic enzymes that breakdown macromolecules inside a eukaryotic cell.
Peroxisomes are self-replicating organelles that are responsible for the production and breakdown of hydrogen peroxide inside a eukaryotic cell. Peroxisomes also breakdown toxic substances such as alcohol.
Ribosomes are organelles in the eukaryotic cell that are responsible for RNA translation. The ribosomes link amino acids together in the sequence specified by messenger RNA (mRNA).